Tuesday, 16 April 2019

Chapter 13: Scheme of the Ngoni Verbs


I INFINITIVE MOOD.


2019 Note: The infinitive corresponds to the English to-infinitive or gerund. It is essentially an action noun. Therefore when one wants to say food, would use the infinituve ukudla which is also the word for “to eat”.

Positive Conjugation
Negative Conjugation
Ukuthanda, to love.
Ukungathandi, not to love.
Ukudla, to eat, eating.
Ukungadli, to not eat.
Ukubona, to see.
Ukungaboni, to not see.
Ukungibona, to see me.
Ukungangiboni, to not see me.
Ukwenza, to do.
Ukungenzi, to not do.
Ukosa, to roast.
Ukungosi, to not roast.

II. IMPERATIVE MOOD.

The imperative is used to issue direct commands. It can occur either alone or with an object prefix.
Thanda (sing.), love thou
Yekela ukuthanda, do not thou love
Thandani (plural), love ye
Yekelani ukuthanda, do not thou love
The plural form, with the suffix -ni, is used when addressing multiple people.

The prefix yi- is used when the verb stem has only one syllable. A shortened form y- is used when the stem begins with a vowel (regardless of number of syllables). Exceptionally, the verb -za "to come" uses the prefix wo- instead, thus woza, wozani etc. (Wikipedia)

Verb
Alone
With object
-dla
Yidla! Yidlani! "Eat!"
YĆ­dle! Yidleni! "Eat it!" (class 4 or 9)
-enza
Yenza! Yenzani! "Do!"
Kwenze! Kwenzeni! "Do it!" (class 15 or 17)
-siza
Siza! Sizani! "Help!"
Ngisize! Ngisizeni! "Help me!"

III. INDICATIVE MOOD.

1. Present Indefinite.

The present indefinite tense, also known as simple present tense, denotes a stative or habitual or eternally true action.

Present Indefinite
1 Sing.
Ngi (Ndi)thanda
I love.
Ngingathandi
I do not love.
2 Sing.
Uthanda
You love.
Ungathandi
You do not love.
3 Sing.
U (wa)thanda
He loves.
Ungathandi
He does not love.
1 Plural
Sithanda
We love.
Singathandi
We do not love.
2 Plural
Nithanda
You love.
Ningathandi
You do not love.
3 Plural
Bathanda
They love.
Bangathandi
They do not love.

2 Present Progressive.

This is used to indicate something that is happening right now.

Present Progressive.
1 Pers. Sing
Ngiyathanda
I love.
Angithandi
I do not love.
2 Pers. Sing.
Uyathanda
You love.
Akuthandi
You do not love.
3 Pers. Sing.
U(wa)yathanda
He loves.
Aka(awa)thandi
He does not love.
1 Pers. Plur.
Siyathanda
We love.
Asithandi
We do not love.
2 Pers. Plur.
Niyathanda
You love.
Anithandi
You do not love.
3 Pers. Plur.
Bayathanda
They love.
Abathandi
They do not love.

3 Present Perfect.

This is used to indicate a completed action.

Present Perfect
1 Pers. Sing
Ngithandile
I have loved.
Angithandanga
I did not or have not loved.
2 Pers. Sing.
Uthandile
You have loved.
Akuthandanga
You did not or have not loved.
3 Pers. Sing.
U(wa)thandile
He has loved.
Aka(awa)thandanga
He did not or has not loved.
1 Pers. Plur.
Sithandile
We have loved.
Asithandanga
We did not or have not loved.
2 Pers. Plur.
Nithandile.
You have loved.
Anithandanga
You did not or have not loved.
3 Pers. Plur.
Bathandile
They have loved.
Abathandanga
They did not or have not loved.

4 Past Indefinite.

Past Indefinite Tense represents an action occurred in the past or a habit of the past and uses the past form of the verb.

Past Indefinite
1 Pers. Sing
Ngathanda
I have loved.
Angithandanga
I did not or have not loved
2 Pers. Sing.
Wathanda
You have loved.
Akuthandanga
You did not or have not loved.
3 Pers. Sing.
Wathanda
He has loved.
Aka(awa)thandanga
He did not or has not loved.
1 Pers. Plur.
Sathanda
We have loved.
Asithandanga
We did not or have not loved.
2 Pers. Plur.
Nathanda
You have loved.
Anithandanga
You did not or have not loved.
3 Pers. Plur.
Bathanda
They have loved.
Abathandanga
They did not or have not loved.

5. Past Progressive.

This is used to present or convey ongoing past actions.
Past Progressive.
1 Pers. Sing.
Bengithanda
I was loving.
Bengingathandi
I was not loving.
2 Pers. Sing.
Ubuthanda
You were loving
Ubungathandi
You were not loving.
3 Pers. Sing.
Wabethanda
He was loving.
Wabengathandi
He was not loving.
1 Pers. Plur.
Besithanda
We were loving.
Besingathandi
We were not loving.
2 Pers. Plur.
Nibenithanda
You were loving
Nibengathandi
You were not loving.
3 Pers. Plur.
Babethanda
They were loving.
Babengathandi
They were not loving.

6. Past Perfect

Past Perfect Tense represents two works which were occurred in the past; the second or later action follows Past Indefinite Tense. Past Perfect Tense uses had and the past participle form of the verb

Past Perfect
1 Pers. Sing.
Bengithandile
I had loved.
Bengingathandanga
I had not loved.
2 Pers. Sing.
Ubuthandile
You had loved.
Ubungathandanga
You had not loved.
3 Pers. Sing.
Wa(u)bethandile
He had loved.
U(wa)bengathandanga
He had not loved.
1 Pers. Plur.
Besithandile
We had loved.
Besingathandanga
We had not loved.
2 Pers. Plur.
nibenithandile
You had loved.
Nibengathandanga
You had not loved.
3 Pers. Plur.
Babethandile
They had loved.
Babengathandanga
They had not loved.


This simply denotes an action one is going to do immediately.
Future (Immediate or emphatic)
1 Pers. Sing.
Ngizakuthanda
I will love.
Angizikuthanda (Zulu, angizuthanda)
I will not love.
1 Pers. Sing.
Ngizothanda
I will love.
Angizikuthanda (Zulu, angizuthanda)
I will not love.
2 Pers. Sing.
Uzakuthanda
You will love.
Akuzikuthanda (Zulu, awuzuthanda)
You will not love.
2 Pers. Sing.
Uzothanda
You will love.
Akuzikuthanda (Zulu, Awuzuthanda)
You will not love.
3 Pers. Sing
Wa(u)zakuthanda
He will love.
Akazikuthanda (Zulu, akazuthanda)
He will not love.
3 Pers. Sing.
Wa(u)zothanda
He will love.
Akazikuthanda (Zulu, akazuthanda)
He will not love.
1 Pers. Plur.
Sizakuthanda
We will love.
Asizikuthanda (Zulu, asizuthanda)
We will not love.
1 Pers. Plur.
Sizothanda
We will love.
Asizikuthanda (Zulu, asizuthanda)
We will not love.
2 Pers. Plur.
Nizakuthanda
You will love.
Anizikuthanda (Zulu, anizuthanda)
You will not love.
2 Pers. Plur.
Nizothanda
You will love.
Anizikuthanda (anizuthanda)
You will not love.
3 Pers. Plur.
Bazakuthanda
They will love.
Abazikuthanda (Zulu, abazuthanda)
They will not love.
3 Pers. Plur.
Bazothanda
They will love.
Abazikuthanda (Zulu, abazuthanda)
They will not love.


It is used to express an action which has not occurred/happened yet and will occur/happen after sometime in future.


Future Indefinite
1 Pers. Sing.
Ngiyakuthanda
I will love.
Angiyikuthanda
I will not love.
2 Pers. Sing.
Uyakuthanda
You will love.
Akuyikuthanda
You will not love.
3 Pers. Sing.
Wayakuthanda
He will love.
Akayikuthanda
He will not love.
1 Pers. Plur.
Siyakuthanda
We will love.
Asiyikuthanda
We will not love.
2 Pers. Plur.
Niyakuthanda
You will love.
Aniyikuthanda
You will not love.
3 Pers. Plur.
Bayakuthanda
They will love.
Abayikuthanda
They will not love.

9. Future Progressive.

This indicates continuing action, something that will be happening, going on, at some point in the future. This tense is formed with the modal "will" plus "be," plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending): "I will be running in next year's Boston Marathon.

Future Progressive
1 Sing.
Ngiyakuba ngithanda
I shall be loving.
Angiyikuba ngithanda
I will not be loving.
2 Sing.
Uyakuba uthanda
Thou shall be loving.
Akuyikuba uthanda
Thou will not be loving.
3 Sing.
Wayakuba ethanda
He shall be loving.
Akayikuba ethanda
He will not be loving.
1 Plur.
Siyakuba sithanda
We shall be loving.
Asiyikuba sithanda
We will not be loving.
2 Plur.
Niyakuba nithanda
You shall be loving.
Aniyikuba, nithanda
You will not be loving.
3 Plur.
Bayakuba bethanda
They shall be loving.
Abayikuba bethanda
They will not be loving.

10 Future Perfect.

The form of the verb that is used to show that an action will have been performed by a particular time. In English it is formed by "will have" or "shall have" and a past participle: In the sentence "By that time I will have finished" the verb phrase "will have finished" is in the future perfect.

Future Perfect
1 Sing.
Ngiyakuba ngithandile
I shall have loved.
Angiyikuba ngithandile
I will not have loved.
2 Sing.
Uyakuba uthandile
Thou shall have loved.
Akuyikuba uthandile
Thou will not have loved.
3 Sing.
Wayakuba ethandile
He shall have loved.
Akayikuba ethandile
He will not have loved.
1 Plur.
Siyakuba sithandile
We shall have loved.
Asiyikuba sithandile
We will not have loved.
2 Plur.
Niyakuba nithandile
You shall have loved.
Aniyikuba nithandile
You will not have loved.
3 Plur.
Bayakuba bathandile
They shall have loved.
Abayikuba bethandile.
They will not have loved.

IV POTENTIAL MOOD.

Potential mood. That form of the verb which is used to express possibility, liberty, power, will, obligation, or necessity, by the use of may, can, must, might, could, would, or should; as, I may go; he can write.

1. Present Indefinite.

1. Present Indefinite
1 Pers. Sing.
Ngingathanda
I may love.
Ngangingathandi
I may not love.
2 Pers. Sing.
Ungathanda
Thou may love.
Ngawungathandi
Thou may not love.
3 Pers. Sing.
Wangathanda
He may love.
Ngawangathandi
He may not love.
1 Pers. Plur.
Singathanda
We may love.
Ngasingathandi
We may not love.
2 Pers. Plur.
Ningathanda
You may love.
Nganingathandi
You may not love.
3 Pers. Plur.
Bangathanda
They may love.
Ngabangathandi
They may not love.

2. Present Indefinite (another)

Present Indefinite (another)
1 Pers. Sing.
Ngengithanda
I should, &c., love.
Ngangingathandi
I should, &c., not love.
2 Pers. Sing.
Ngewuthanda
Thou should, &c., love
Ngawungathandi
Thou should, &c., not love.
3 Pers. Sing.
Ngewathanda
He should, &c., love
Ngawangathandi
He should, &c., not love
1 Pers. Plur.
Ngesithanda
We should, &c., love.
Ngasingathandi
We should, &c., not love.
2 Pers. Plur.
Ngenithanda
Ye should, &c., love
Nganingathandi
Ye should, &c., not love.
3 Pers. Plur.
Ngebathanda
They should, &c., love.
Ngabangathandi
They should, &c., not love.

3 Present Perfect.

Present Perfect
1 Pers. Sing.
Ngengithandile
I should, &c., have loved.
Ngangingathandanga
I should not have loved.
2 Pers. Sing.
Ngewuthandile
Thou should, &c., have loved.
Ngawungathandanga
Thou should, &c., not have loved.
3 Pers. Sing.
Ngewathandile
He should, &c., have loved.
Ngawangathandanga
He should, &c., not have loved.
1 Pers. Plur.
Ngesithandile
We should, &c., have loved.
Ngasingathandanga
We should, &c., not have loved.
2 Pers. Plur.
Ngenithandile
Ye should, &c., have loved.
Nganingathandanga
Ye should, &c., not have loved.
3 Pers. Plur.
Ngebathandile
They should, &c., have loved.
Ngabangathandanga
They should, &c., not have loved.

4. Past Indefinite

Past Indefinite.
1 Pers. Sing.
Ngengathanda
I should, &c., have loved
Ngangingathandanga
I should, &c., not have loved.
2 Pers. Sing.
Ngewathanda
Thou should, &c., have loved
Ngawungathandanga
Thou should, &c., not have loved.
3 Pers. Sing.
Ngewathanda
He should, &c., have loved
Ngawangathandanga
He should, &c., not have loved.
1 Pers. Plur.
Ngesathanda
We should, &c., have loved.
Ngasingathandanga
We should, &c., not have loved.
2 Pers. Plur.
Ngenithanda
Ye should, etc., have loved.
Nganingathandanga
Ye should, &c., not have loved.
3 Pers. Plur.
Ngebathanda
They should, etc, have loved.
Ngabangathandanga
They should, &c., not have loved.



A more strictly potential mood commonly use, is formed from the verb, ukuyazi, to know, and another verb. Example: Ngiyazi ukulemba (ukubhala), I know to write, i.e., I can write.  Or, where physical power is indicated the verb ukuba, to be, and the conjunction "with" and amandla, strength is used. Example. Nginamandla ukuhamba, I have power to walk. i.e., I can walk.

Click here for Chapter 14: Ngoni Greetings

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