Tuesday, 16 April 2019

Chapter 8 : Ngoni Adverb

Adverbs in Ngoni are in most cases derived from for example, nouns, pronouns, demonstratives, qualificatives, etc. This is done by adding prefixes and in other cases suffixes. There are also some word categories that can be used as adverbs without the addition of prefixes or suffixes.

The numeral adverbs have been already noticed. The most frequent adverbs are those of time, place and manner. For list of adverbs the dictionary may be consulted. The following rules show how adverbs may be formed from other parts of speech.


1. Adjectives may be converted into adverbs by prefixing ka or ku to the root (stem).

EXAMPLES.

Kakhulu, greatly <  -khulu, great.
kufuphi, near;
kudeni, far away.
kanye, once  <  -nye, one.
kabili, twice  < -bili, two.
kathathu, three times < -thathu, three.
kaningi, often  < -ningi, often.

Sentence examples:

Babonana kanye. They saw one another once.

Uya emfuleni kabili namuhla. He went to the river twice today.


2. Adverbs from nouns when nga- is prefixed to the root.

EXAMPLES.

ukulunga righteousness, goodness >nga-+ ukulunga>  Ngokulunga, rightly;

umusa kindness > nga- + umusa > ngomusa, kindly.

amandla, strength > nga- + amandla > ngamandla, hard, a lot i.e. with, by means of strength.

e.g. Abafana basebenza ngamandla, The boys have worked hard.

3. The perfect tense indicative mood is used with nga.

EXAMPLES.

Ngokulungileyo, rightly.

Note 1: - Many adverbs take kwa or ku after them—e.g., phezulu kwentaba upon the mountain.

Note 2: - Some take ku or na after them—e.g., kusekudeni kubo or nabo, it is far from them.

THE FOLLOWING ARE THE PRINCIPAL ADVERBS IN USE: -

1. Adverbs of time-

Emini, noon, at mid-day.

Izolo, yesterday.

Kadeni, long ago.

Kalokhu, just now, at this moment.Ngiyathanda ukuba ungiphe kalokhu ikhanda likaYohane uMbhapathizi.  I want that you give me now the head of John the Baptist

Kaningi, much, often.

Kanye, once, together.

Kho, present, here, there.

Khona, now, then, when.

Kuphela, at an end, finally. '

Kusasa, early, to-morrow morning. Bayakuphumula (Bazophumula) kusasa ekuseni. They will rest tomorrow morning.

Kuthangi, day before yesterday. Wafa kuthangi, He died the day before yesterday.

Kuqala, first.

Lokhu, then, when, since.

Masinyane, at once, speedily.

Namuhla, to-day eg. Ngizosiza uShaka namuhla, I will help Shaka today.


2. Adverbs of place: -

Emuva, behind, after. Bafike emuva. They came late/afterwards.

Endawonye (or ndawonye), together, in one place.

Khona, or kho, here, there.

Khona lapha, just here.

Khona lapho, just there.

Kudeni, far away, far. Basebenza kudeni. They work far away.

Kufuphi, near.

Malunga, opposite to, near by.

Ngalapha, here away, hereabouts.

Ngalapho, there away, thereabouts. Waphuma ngalapho. He went out from there.

Nganeno (or neno), on this side.

Phakathi, within, among, in the midst.

Phambili before, beyond.  Ngiyonile baba phambi (phambili) kwakho. I have sinned father before you.

Phandle, without, abroad.

Phansi, down, below. Hlala phansi. Sit down.

Phezulu, up, above, upon.

lapha (lapa), here. Indoda yami ihlala lapha, My husband (man) lives here.

laphaya, yonder.

3. Adverbs of manner-


Kuhle} well, nicely.

Kakhulu, greatly, very.

Kabi} badly, poorly.

Kubi,

Kambe, naturally, of course. Usho njalo kambe, You say so I suppose.

Kangaka, so much, thus, so.

ke, therefore.

Njalo again, so, thus, and so on.

Nje, thus, merely, just so.

Njenga, accordingly, like as.

Ngaka, such.

Ngabomu, on purpose, willfully. UZwangendaba omnyama ngabomu, Zwangendaba who is black willfully.

4. Other adverbs--


Ng'o, no.

Hayi, No.

Cha, No

Yebo, yes.

Yebo phela, yes, indeed.

Kumbe, perhaps, probably.

Kodwa, only, but.

Phela, of course, then.

futhi, again. This can also be used as a conjunction to mean, also or and.
Example of use as adverb: Abafana bambamba futhi. The boys caught him again.

Note - Some adverbs take the personal pronoun as do adjectives.

EXAMPLE. Balapha or bakhona lapha, they are here



Three Ngoni Inkosi s 1890s


Click here to go to Chapter 9: Ngoni Verbs

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