Tuesday, 16 April 2019

Chapter 10: Ngoni Auxilliary Verbs

1. Ukuba, to be. This is the most important auxiliary verb, as by its use the compound tenses of the verb are constructed. This verb is irregular in its conjugation, and is only used in the following forms:-

1. Present indicative. The root does not appear at all, and the pronouns subjective designate "I am," "He is," &c., &c. It may be used with nouns, pronouns, or adjectives and adverbs, thus: -

EXAMPLES.

Ngingumuntu, I am a person.

Unguye, he is he.

In the above cases the -ng is the copula or verb substantive used with nouns and pronoun

Used with adjectives as shown below: -

Ngifile, I am dead.

Ngimnyama, I am black.

Used with adverbs:

Ngiphezulu, I am high up.

Ngikhona, I am present.

NOTE: - By using the verb "to be" in this way many verbs may be formed.

2. Perfect indicative. Used in forming compound tenses of verb.

Singular
Plural
1st person
Ngibe (I be)
Sibe (we be, she be, he be, it be etc)
2nd person
Ube (you be, it be)
Nibe (you be)
3rd person
Wabe, ube
Babe (they be)


NOTE. —Waba may be heard; it is probably a past tense form.

2. Ukuya, to go. The present and past (or perfect) tenses are used as auxiliaries.


1ST PRESENT
Singular
Plural
1st Person
Ngiya
Siya
2nd Person
Uya
Niya
3rd Person
Waya (uya)
Baya
2ND PRESENT
1st Person
Ngaye
Saye
2nd Person
Waye
Naye
3rd Person
Waye
Baye


NOTE: - Waye is frequently supplanted in speech by wae.

3. Ukuza, to come. It is used in constructing one of the forms- of the future indicative and has the force of an imminent or immediate tense. "I am about to," &c.

4. The auxiliary ukuba, to be, is used with the preposition na, with, to construct a verb "to have," and this verb is used to form adjectives.

EXAMPLES.

Ngina-, I have; Nginembuzi, I have a goat.

Una, you have; Unomusa, you have mercy— you are merciful.

In like manner other tenses may be used.

5. Ng- the substantive verb "it is" is used as the copula with - nouns and pronouns. It is also used after passive, or subjective verbs, active voice, with the agent of the verb, but it may be omitted in the latter case

TABLE OF COPULA WITH NOUNS AND PRONOUN'S.


Person
Class
COPULA WITH NOUN
COPULA WITH PRONOUN
Singular                                            
Plural
I
Ngimi It is I
Ngithi. It is we,
II
Nguwe It is you
Ngilina. It is you
III
1
Ngumuntu. It is a person.
Nguye
It is he.
Ngabantu. It is people.
Ngabo


It is it;
It is they
2.
Ngumuthi. It is a tree.
Ngiwo
Ngimithi. It is trees.
Ngiyo
3.
Ngimbuzi. It is a goat.
Ngiyo
Ngizimbuzi. It is goats.
Ngizo
4.
Ngisihlangu. It is a shield.
Ngiso
Ngivihlangu. It is shields
Ngivo (-vo probably tumbuka)
5.
Ngilizwi. It is a word.
Ngilo
Ngamazwi. It is words
Ngiwo or ngawo
6.
Nguluthi. It is a rod.
Ngilo
Ngizinti. It is rods
Ngizo
7.
Ngukudla, It is food.


NOTE 1: - The copula ng- is to be noted as differing from the preposition nga which denotes the instrument, while ng- denotes the agent.

EXAMPLES.

Wabulawa ngumuthi, he was killed by a tree.

Watshibulala ngomuthi, he killed it with a tree.

NOTE 2: - If the copula is used in such a sentence as, It is he who came, nguye owabuya is the correct form; but, He is the person who came, the personal pronoun subjective is required before the copula as, Ungumuntu owabuya or unguye umuntu owabuya.

EXAMPLES.

Ungubani? Who are you?

Lingilizwi, it is a voice.

Singukudla, it (the thing) is food. But the personal pronoun is frequently omitted.


NOTE 3. -The negative of the above is formed by prefixing asi, it is not. = asinguye asiye} It is not he.




African women


Click here to go to Chapter 11: Ngoni Auxiliary Particles.

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